In 2017, the newly-born population was 19,981 with a birth rate of 13.0‰; the death population was 25,502 with a death rate of 16.6‰. The natural population growth rate was -3.6‰. At the end of the year, the permanent resident population was 1.5378 million with an urbanization rate of 45.35%. In 2017, there were 253 kindergartens with 42,384 students in the pre-school kindergartens (classes); there were 158 primary schools with 91,442 students; 73 middle junior high schools with 43,567 students; 14 ordinary senior high schools with 21,728 students; and 8 secondary vocational schools with 12,059 students. The number of full-time teachers was 13,536. There were also some institutions of higher learning including Sichuan Agricultural University and Yaan Polytechnic College. There were 552 medical care institutions (excluding village clinic) with 12,382 beds and 11,172 health technicians.